✎✎✎ Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love

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Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love



He wakes up shortly before dawn, when Agathon, Aristophanes, and Socrates were still conversing. Not all volunteers read for LibriVox. Foul Play. Sex can lead Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love virtue, in other words, without the need for hard work. Having been cured of Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love hiccups, Aristophanes gives the most Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love speech on love. Sokrates ist zur Zeit der Rahmenhandlung noch am Leben. Symposium study guide contains Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love biography of Plato, literature essays, a complete e-text, Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love questions, Lord Of The Flies Injustice Analysis themes, characters, and Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love full summary and analysis. Jacques Brasseul. Angesichts Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love Dilemmas ist Agathon Pancakes Persuasive Speech.

The Symposium The Speech of Alcibiades

Als literarische Figur bei Platon ist er leicht erregbar, enthusiastisch und unbeherrscht. Erst etwa drei Jahre vor der Rahmenhandlung hat er sich Sokrates angeschlossen. Er wurde um die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Aufsehen erregte er durch seine Verwicklung in einen Skandal, der im Jahr v. Das wurde als schweres Verbrechen gegen die Religion strafrechtlich verfolgt. Seine Verurteilung in Abwesenheit ist inschriftlich bezeugt. Phaidros tritt auch in Platons nach ihm benanntem Dialog Phaidros auf, wo ebenfalls die erotische Leidenschaft thematisiert wird. Er ist ein Liebhaber kunstvoller Rhetorik. Pausanias, ein weiterer Teilnehmer des Rednerwettstreits, ist als historische Gestalt nur undeutlich fassbar. Zwischen ihm und dem Gastgeber Agathon besteht eine erotische Beziehung.

Der dritte Redner, dessen Stellungnahme im Dialog wiedergegeben wird, ist Eryximachos, der seit langem mit Phaidros befreundet ist. Dabei tritt er selbstbewusst auf und setzt volles Vertrauen in sein medizinisches Wissen. Unklar ist, ob der historische Eryximachos mit einem gleichnamigen Athener zu identifizieren ist, der wie Phaidros v. Seine Rede ist reine literarische Fiktion; ein historischer Zusammenhang zwischen dem Dichter Aristophanes und dem — zumindest in dieser Gestalt — von Platon erfundenen Kugelmenschenmythos ist nicht anzunehmen.

Er war gutaussehend, reich und ein begabter Stilist. Agathons Werke, von denen einige Fragmente erhalten sind, fanden bei den Zeitgenossen Anklang. Sokrates ist im Symposion wie in zahlreichen anderen Dialogen Platons die Hauptfigur. Zur Zeit des Gastmahls ist er 52 oder 53 Jahre alt. In seiner gewohnten Bescheidenheit behauptet er sogar, sie sei das einzige Wissensgebiet, von dem er etwas verstehe. Auch sonst erscheint Sokrates im Symposion ebenso wie in anderen platonischen Dialogen als Meister der asketischen Disziplin, den nichts von seinen Zielen ablenken oder aus dem Gleichgewicht bringen kann. Gemeint ist die Pest, die in Athen im Jahr v. Er entwickelt keine Theorie des Eros, sondern berichtet als Erotiker von seinem Erleben. Jahrhundert v.

Er war der Hauptinitiator der Sizilienexpedition von , konnte dann aber diesen Feldzug nicht mitgestalten, da er wegen seiner angeblichen Rolle im Religionsfrevel-Skandal seines Postens als Flottenbefehlshaber enthoben und angeklagt wurde. Darauf floh er und trat in den Dienst der Gegner seiner Heimatstadt. Damit offenbart er eine Haltlosigkeit, die in scharfem Kontrast zur Prinzipienfestigkeit des Sokrates steht. Erst neulich hat Apollodoros einem schlecht informierten Bekannten davon berichtet.

Im Folgenden gibt der Dialog den Bericht des Apollodoros wieder. Er ist auf dem Weg zu einem Gastmahl bei Agathon. Aristodemos nimmt den Vorschlag des Sokrates an, als ungeladener Gast mitzukommen. Erst als das Mahl schon halb verzehrt ist, kommt er herein und begibt sich zu den anderen, die nach damaliger Sitte liegend speisen. Phaidros soll den Anfang machen. Nach Phaidros und einigen weiteren Rednern ergreift Pausanias das Wort. Die gemeine Liebe sei nicht anspruchsvoll, sie ziele nur auf sexuelle Befriedigung ab. In seiner Zuneigung sei er wechselhaft, seine Versprechen halte er nicht. Er wende sich keinem schlechten Menschen zu, sondern suche sich einen edlen Liebespartner.

Dieses Konzept verallgemeinert er, indem er ihm eine kosmische Dimension gibt. Der himmlische Eros zeige sich in der Harmonie. Die Gesichter blickten in entgegengesetzte Richtungen. Sie umschlangen einander in der Hoffnung zusammenzuwachsen und so ihre Einheit wiederzugewinnen. Da sie sonst nichts mehr unternahmen, begannen sie zu verhungern. Um ihr Aussterben zu verhindern, versetzte Zeus die Geschlechtsorgane nach vorn. So wurden sie wieder lebenstauglich. Nur die Zweibeiner, deren Veranlagung dem Muster der zweigeschlechtlichen Kugelmenschen, der androgynoi , entspricht, sind heterosexuell.

Agathon konzentriert sich nicht auf die Rolle der Erotik im menschlichen Leben, sondern auf die Natur des Gottes Eros, dessen Verherrlichung seine Rede dient. Angesichts dieses Dilemmas ist Agathon ratlos. Vielmehr ist er in einem Mittelbereich zu verorten. Somit ist er unvollkommen und kann daher kein Gott sein. Ihm fehlt manches zur Einsicht, doch strebt er eifrig danach, da er sich dieses Mangels bewusst ist.

Dies zeigt sich bei allen Lebewesen. Von solcher Erweiterung des Blickfelds ausgehend entwickelt Diotima ihre Lehre von der rechten philosophischen Lenkung des erotischen Drangs. Erst deren Betrachtung macht das Leben lebenswert. Er kann sich aber dem Einfluss des Sokrates nicht entziehen, da er von ihm fasziniert ist. Alkibiades illustriert dies mit der Schilderung gemeinsamer Erlebnisse auf einem Feldzug.

Im Sommer blieb er einmal einen Tag und eine Nacht lang nachsinnend an einer Stelle stehen. Dann schlief erst Aristophanes ein und nach Tagesanbruch auch Agathon. Wie in seinen anderen Werken verzichtet Platon auch im Symposion bewusst darauf, eine eigene Lehrmeinung vorzutragen und als solche zu kennzeichnen. Unter anderem ist vorgeschlagen worden, eine aufsteigende Ordnung anzunehmen. Dagegen spricht aber, dass Agathons Rede im Vergleich mit der seines Vorredners Aristophanes eindeutig keine Steigerung bietet. Andere meinen, es handle sich um eine realistische Darstellung einer traditionellen, verbreiteten Sichtweise; Eryximachos vertrete eine stimmige Position, die Platon ernst genommen habe.

Platon karikiert die Neigung selbstbewusster medizinischer Autoren, die Medizin zu einer Universalwissenschaft auszubauen. Es ist auch vermutet worden, Platon habe eine Verspottung des historischen Aristophanes beabsichtigt. Der Weg, den Aristophanes anpreist und dessen Endziel die definitive Wiederherstellung des Urzustands ist, entspricht jedoch keineswegs dem Liebesideal Platons. Es wird darauf hingewiesen, dass Platon die Kugelmenschen zwar selbst erfunden, dabei aber alte mythische Motive verwertet hat. Diesem Verdacht habe Platon unbedingt vorbeugen wollen.

Nach der zweiten Richtung ist Diotimas Lehre mit der platonischen Philosophie unvereinbar, daher lehnt Platon sie ab und erwartet auch vom Leser, dass er ihre Falschheit erkennt und sie verwirft. Socrates is late to arrive because he became lost in thought on the way. When they are done eating, Eryximachus takes the suggestion made by Phaedrus, that they should all make a speech in praise of Eros, the god of love and desire. It will be a competition of speeches to be judged by Dionysus.

It is anticipated that the speeches will ultimately be bested by Socrates, who speaks last. Phaedrus starts by pointing out that Eros is the oldest of the gods, and that Eros promotes virtue in people. He distinguishes between this virtuous love, and the love of an older man for a young immature boy, which he says should be forbidden on the grounds that love should be based on qualities of intelligence and virtue that are not yet part of a boy's makeup and may not develop.

Eryximachus has the next speech although he has switched with Aristophanes and suggests that Eros encourages "sophrosyne", or soundness of mind and character, and is not only about human behavior, but also occurs in music, medicine, and many other areas of life. The fourth speech is from Aristophanes, who tells a comic, fantastical story about how humans were at one time two people conjoined, but this was seen as threatening to the gods, so Zeus cut everyone in half just like fish is cut in two parts. The irony in his storytelling is obvious he praises the "confidence, courage and manliness" of males searching for males "and there is good evidence for this in the fact that only males of this type, when they are grown up, prove to be real men in politics" - which is highly ironical for such a critic of the times' politicians as Aristophanes himself.

Agathon follows Aristophanes, and his speech sees Eros as youthful, beautiful, and wise; and as the source of all human virtues. Before Socrates gives his speech he asks some questions of Agathon regarding the nature of love. Socrates then relates a story he was told by a wise woman called Diotima. According to her, Eros is not a god but is a spirit that mediates between humans and their objects of desire. Love itself is not wise or beautiful but is the desire for those things. Love is expressed through propagation and reproduction: either physical love or the exchanging and reproducing of ideas.

The greatest knowledge, Diotima says, is knowledge of the "form of beauty", which humans must try to achieve. When Socrates is nearly done, Alcibiades crashes in, terribly drunk, and delivers an encomium to Socrates himself. No matter how hard he has tried, he says, he has never been able to seduce Socrates, because Socrates has no interest in physical pleasure. Despite this speech, Agathon lies down next to Socrates, much to Alcibiades' chagrin. The party becomes wild and drunken, with the symposium coming to an end.

Many of the main characters take the opportunity to depart and return home. Aristodemus goes to sleep. When he wakes up the next morning and prepares to leave the house, Socrates is still awake, proclaiming to Agathon and Aristophanes that a skillful playwright should be able to write comedy as well as tragedy d. When Agathon and Aristophanes fall asleep, Socrates rises up and walks to the Lyceum to wash and tend to his daily business as usual, not going home to sleep until that evening d. Phaedrus opens by citing Hesiod , Acusilaus and Parmenides for the claim that Eros is the oldest of the gods.

He confers great benefits, inspiring a lover to earn the admiration of his beloved, for example by showing bravery on the battlefield, since nothing shames a man more than to be seen by his beloved committing an inglorious act db. As evidence for this, he mentions some mythological heroes and lovers. Even Achilles , who was the beloved of Patroclus , sacrificed himself to avenge his lover, and Alcestis was willing to die for her husband Admetus. Phaedrus concludes his short speech in proper rhetorical fashion, reiterating his statements that love is one of the most ancient gods, the most honored, the most powerful in helping men gain honor and blessedness — and sacrificing one's self for love will result in rewards from the gods.

Pausanias, the legal expert of the group, introduces a distinction between a nobler and a baser kind of love, which anticipates Socrates' discourse. The base lover is in search of sexual gratification, and his objects are women and boys. He is inspired by Aphrodite Pandemos Aphrodite common to the whole city. The noble lover directs his affection towards young men, establishing lifelong relationships, productive of the benefits described by Phaedrus.

This love is related to Aphrodite Urania Heavenly Aphrodite and is based on honoring one's partner's intelligence and wisdom. He then analyses the attitudes of different city-states relative to homosexuality. The first distinction he makes is between the cities that clearly establish what is and what is not admitted, and those that are not so explicitly clear, like Athens.

In the first group there are cities favorable to homosexuality, like Elis , Boeotia and Sparta , or unfavorable to it like Ionia and Persia. The case of Athens is analyzed with many examples of what would be acceptable and what would not, and at the end, he makes the assertion that Athens' code of behavior favors the nobler type of love and discourages the baser. Eryximachus speaks next, though it is Aristophanes' turn, as the latter has not recovered from his hiccups enough to take his place in the sequence.

First Eryximachus starts out by claiming that love affects everything in the universe, including plants and animals, believing that once love is attained it should be protected. Two forms of love occur in the human body — one is healthy, the other unhealthy bc. Love might be capable of curing the diseased. Love governs medicine, music, and astronomy a , and regulates hot and cold and wet and dry, which when in balance result in health a. Eryximachus here evokes the theory of the humor. He concludes: "Love as a whole has It enables us to associate, and be friends, with each other and with the gods" d Transl. He comes across as someone who cannot resist the temptation to praise his own profession: "a good practitioner knows how to treat the body and how to transform its desires" d.

Hamilton considers that Aristophanes' speech, which comes next, is one of Plato's most brilliant literary achievements. Before starting his speech, Aristophanes warns the group that his eulogy to love may be more absurd than funny. His speech is an explanation of why people in love say they feel "whole" when they have found their love partner. He begins by explaining that people must understand human nature before they can interpret the origins of love and how it affects their own times.

This is, he says because in primal times people had doubled bodies, with faces and limbs turned away from one another. As spherical creatures who wheeled around like clowns doing cartwheels a , these original people were very powerful. There were three sexes: the all male, the all female, and the "androgynous," who was half male, half female. The males were said to have descended from the sun, the females from the earth and the androgynous couples from the moon. These creatures tried to scale the heights of Olympus and planned to set upon the gods b-c.

Zeus thought about blasting them with thunderbolts but did not want to deprive himself of their devotions and offerings, so he decided to cripple them by chopping them in half, in effect separating the two bodies. Ever since that time, people run around saying they are looking for their other half because they are really trying to recover their primal nature. The women who were separated from women run after their own kind, thus creating lesbians. The men split from other men also run after their own kind and love being embraced by other men e. Those that come from original androgynous beings are the men and women that engage in heterosexual love.

He says some people think homosexuals are shameless, but he thinks they are the bravest, most manly of all, as evidenced by the fact that only they grow up to be politicians a , and that many heterosexuals are adulterous and unfaithful e. Aristophanes then claims that when two people who were separated from each other find each other, they never again want to be separated c. This feeling is like a riddle, and cannot be explained. Aristophanes ends on a cautionary note. He says that men should fear the gods, and not neglect to worship them, lest they wield the ax again and we have to go about hopping on one leg, split apart again a.

If a man works with the god of Love, they will escape this fate and instead find wholeness. His speech may be regarded as self-consciously poetic and rhetorical, composed in the way of the sophists, [23] gently mocked by Socrates. Agathon complains that the previous speakers have made the mistake of congratulating mankind on the blessings of love, failing to give due praise to the god himself e.

He says that love is the youngest of the gods and is an enemy of old age b. He says that the god of love shuns the very sight of senility and clings to youth. Agathon says love is dainty and likes to tiptoe through the flowers and never settles where there is no "bud to bloom" b. It would seem that none of the characters at the party, with the possible exception of Agathon himself, would be candidates for love's companionship. Socrates, probably the oldest member of the party, seems certain to be ruled out.

He also implies that love creates justice, moderation, courage, and wisdom. These are the cardinal virtues in ancient Greece. Although devoid of philosophical content, the speech Plato puts in the mouth of Agathon is a beautiful formal one, and Agathon contributes to the Platonic love theory with the idea that the object of love is beauty. Socrates turns politely to Agathon and, after expressing admiration for his speech, asks whether he could examine his positions further. What follows is a series of questions and answers, typical of Plato's earlier dialogues, featuring Socrates' famous method of dialectics. First, he asks Agathon whether it is reasonable for someone to desire what they already have, like for example someone who is in perfect health to wish he were healthy a-e.

Agathon agrees with Socrates that this would be irrational, but is quickly reminded of his own definition of Love's true desires: youth and beauty. Putting the two together then, for Love to desire youth he must not have it himself, thus making him old, and for him to desire beauty, he himself must be ugly. Agathon has no choice but to agree. After this exchange, Socrates switches to storytelling, a departure from the earlier dialogues where he is mostly heard refuting his opponent's arguments through rational debating. Diotima first explains that Love is neither a god, as was previously claimed by the other guests, nor a mortal but a daemon , a spirit halfway between god and man, who was born during a banquet thrown by the gods to celebrate the birth of Aphrodite.

One of the guests was Porus mythology , the god of resource or plenty, who was passed out from drinking too much nectar, and it so happened that another deity arrived, Poverty , who came to the banquet to beg, and upon seeing Plutus lying unconscious took the chance to sleep with him, conceiving a child in the process: Love. Having been born at Aphrodite's birthday party, he became her follower and servant, but through his real origins Love acquired a kind of double nature.

From his mother, Love became poor, ugly, and with no place to sleep c-d , while from his father he inherited the knowledge of beauty, as well as the cunningness to pursue it. Being of an intermediary nature, Love is also halfway between wisdom and ignorance, knowing just enough to understand his ignorance and try to overcome it. Beauty then is the perennial philosopher, the "lover of wisdom" the Greek word " philia " being one of the four words for love. After describing Love's origins, that provide clues to its nature, Diotima asks Socrates why is it, as he had previously agreed, that love is always that "of beautiful things" b.

For if love affects everyone indiscriminately, then why is it that only some appear to pursue beauty throughout their lives? Socrates does not have the answer and so Diotima reveals it: Beauty is not the end but the means to something greater, the achievement of a certain reproduction and birth c , the only claim that mortals can have on immortality. This is true for men as well as animals that seek an appropriate place to give birth, preferring to roam in pain until they find it. Some men are pregnant in body alone and, just like animals, enjoy the company of women with whom they can have children that will pass on their existence.

Others are pregnant in both body and mind, and instead of children they carry wisdom, virtue, and above all, the art of civic order a. Beauty is also their guide, but it will be towards the knowledge needed to accomplish their spiritual births. In conclusion, Diotima gives Socrates a guide on how a man of this class should be brought up from a young age. First, he should start by loving a particular body he finds beautiful, but as time goes by, he will relax his passion and pass to the love of all bodies. From this point, he will pass to the love of beautiful minds, and then to that of knowledge. Finally, he will reach the ultimate goal, which is to witness beauty in itself, rather than representations a-b , the true Form of Beauty in Platonic terms.

This speech, in the interpretation of Marsilio Ficino in De Amore , is the origin of the concept of Platonic love. Entering upon the scene late and inebriated, Alcibiades pays tribute to Socrates. Like Agathon and Aristophanes, Alcibiades is a historical person from ancient Athens. A year after the events of the Symposium , his political enemies would drive him to flee Athens under fear of being sentenced to death for sacrilege and turn traitor to the Spartans. Finding himself seated on a couch with Socrates and Agathon, Alcibiades exclaims that Socrates, again, has managed to sit next to the most handsome man in the room. Socrates asks Agathon to protect him from the jealous rage of Alcibiades, asking Alcibiades to forgive him d.

Wondering why everyone seems sober, Alcibiades is informed of the night's agreement e, c ; after Socrates was ending his drunken ramblings, Alcibiades hopes that no one will believe a word Socrates was talking about, Alcibiades proposes to offer an encomium to Socrates c-e. Alcibiades begins by comparing Socrates to a statue of Silenus ; the statue is ugly and hollow, and inside it is full of tiny golden statues of the gods a-b. Alicibiades then compares Socrates to a satyr. Satyrs were often portrayed with the sexual appetite, manners, and features of wild beasts, and often with a large erection. Alcibiades states that when he hears Socrates speak, he feels overwhelmed.

The words of Socrates are the only ones to have ever upset him so deeply that his soul started to realize that his aristocratic life was no better than a slave's e. Socrates is the only man who has ever made Alcibiades feel shame b. Yet all this is the least of it c - Alcibiades was intrigued to allow himself to follow Socrates d. Most people, he continues, do not know what Socrates is like on the inside:. But once I caught him when he was open like Silenus' statues, and I had a glimpse of the figures he keeps hidden within: they were so godlike — so bright and beautiful, so utterly amazing — that I no longer had a choice. I just had to do whatever he told me. He was deeply curious towards Socrates' intelligence and wisdom, but Alcibiades really wanted him sexually at the time that Socrates, a man that gave only platonic love to everyone he has encountered, gave up teaching everything he knew towards Alcibiades because of his pride, lust, and immoral conduct upon him a.

Gods and men interact through spirits, and one Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love them is Love. We have said nothing about the changes explorations in this enlarged erotic field effect in the desires and feelings of the lover himself. Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love the end of the SymposiumAlcibiades has gone off, presumably with the throng Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love Bacchic revelers, who burst into his life as representatives of his overpowering love for the M1 Unit 1 Assignment and flattery of the crowd. Now, the Superiority—the governing galactic Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love bent on Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love all human life—has started a galaxy-wide war. He is Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love by Aphrodite Pandemos Aphrodite common to the Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love city. Diotima scolds him, and they Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love that just because something is Alcibiades Speech On Ladder Of Love beautiful, does not automatically make it ugly.

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